In this context, the word “chance” connotes the chances of the appearance of certain random numbers for a given random distribution of numbers as logically defined in advanced modern mathematics, while the word “determinism” implies the confidence one would have on certain measured quantities in physics. The logical existence of the former is purely mathematical while the logical existence of the latter is purely physical. However, combining them together creates the mathematical science of statistics. Nonetheless, the mathematical science of statistics depends entirely on the theoretical validity of the mathematical theory of probability. Historically speaking, the mathematics of probability was first introduced by the 17th century French mathematician Pierre-Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) in 1812. Coincidently, this is in the same time period between 1799 and 1825 that Laplace completed his exceptional mathematical treatise on celestial mechanics with the French title Mécanique céleste. This treatise comprises the prior mathematical and physical discoveries of Newton, Leibniz, Clairaut, d’Alembert, Euler, Lagrange, and Laplace himself. It was duly noted that this 5-volume treatise was so complete that even Laplace’s immediate successors could not add little more to it. As for Laplace’s 1812 publication on the mathematical theory of probability the French title is given as Théorie analytique des probabilités. In the second edition published in 1814, Laplace included a now popular philosophical mathematical essay known in French as the Essai philosophique sur les probabilités. This essay purportedly contains the famous quote by Laplace saying to the effect that the future of the physical universe is completely determined by the past so that whosoever possesses the mathematical knowledge of all the physical states (otherwise, namely the ToE) of the universe at any given instant of time could also predict all its future states. In other words, Laplace absolutely believed in physical determinism. However, it is very important to make the distinction that this kind of determinism is solely derived from physical measurement and repeated accurate and correct calculations. In contradistinction, in the same philosophical essay of 1814, it is fair to say that Laplace has also alluded to the effect of the following quote taken from the The Princeton Companion to Mathematics, a mathematical compendium published by Princeton University Press in 2008: “Probability was the measure, not of the operations of chance in nature, for there are none, but of human ignorance of causes, which was to be reduced to virtual certainty by calculations.” Clearly, from this second quotation of probability mathematics, Laplace never lived to believe that “chance” is capable of providing physical meaning unless of course supported by physically meaningful calculations. Furthermore, the deciding calculations always come from sensible double-blind independent experimentations. Note that the significance of doubly blinded experimentations is to prevent inadvertently introducing human bias into the experiments. Hence, from the true implication of these two quotations regarding Laplace’s correct understanding of the mathematical theory of probability, he always believed that the mathematical theory of chance can truly be physically meaningful if and only if it is represented by a rational number, which is properly defined as the ratio of two positive integers such that the numerator must always be less than or equal to the denominator. This kind of rational numbers is technically called proper fractions. Eventually, by repeated experimentations and calculations, if the numerator becomes exactly equal to the denominator then and only then true physical determinism is rightfully attained. For a Gaussian normal distribution of random proper fractions, achieving absolute determinism means that the numerical value of the variance must be exactly zero. In quantum statistics, zero variance is properly represented by a generalized function known as the delta function, which is also known as the Dirac delta function of quantum mechanics. This special function is theoretically connected mathematically to the physical principle of uncertainty first discovered by Heisenberg and from repeated calculations all uncertainties can never be numerically less than an experimentally determined rationalized physical constant known as Planck’s constant of action.